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Sprinkler systems are intended to either control the fire or to suppress the fire. The fire is not extinguished before the burning materials are exhausted or manually extinguished by fire fighters. Consulting or Designing engineers select different types of installations depending on the building type and the usage of the building.
Fire sprinkler systems use water to suppress, and in best case scenario to extinguish, fires in buildings. Piped systems are used to distribute the media throughout the building to wherever the fire is present. Water is relatively cheap and typically available in adequate amounts, and very useful to extinguish fire, since water-droplets rapidly absorb heat and converts it to steam, which displaces the air and suffocates the fire.
Sprinklers can be made in various designs to perform different spray patterns, time of response, pressure, droplet size etc.Fire sprinkler installations must comply with fire protection standards, which there are legislative and mandatory provisions to indicate requirements for planning, installation and maintenance of fire protection systems. Fire protection standards can be written by independent organizations, insurance associations or government authorities to minimize the possibility and effects of fires.
Wet pipe systems
Wet pipe sprinkler systems are the most common system. The pipes are filled with water under pressure and are only installed in frost resistant building areas. Since they are simple – they are also very reliable.
Dry pipe systems
Dry pipe systems are installed in spaces, where the ambient temperature may be cold enough to freeze the water in a wet pipe system – making a wet pipe system inoperable. Dry pipe systems are typically used in refrigerated coolers, car parking area and in unheated buildings or water sensitive areas, since dry pipe systems do not leak water.
Deluge systems are systems where all sprinklers connected are open. These sprinklers have no sensing element (glass bulb). Deluge systems are used in areas where there is a concern for a rapid fire spread. The open sprinklers will distribute water over the entire area.